A brain aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. Usually aneurysm remains small and is never diagnosed. However in some cases it may gradually become larger and exert pressure on surrounding brain tissue and nerves and may be diagnosed because of stroke-like symptoms including headache, numbness, or weakness of one side of the face, a dilated pupil, or change in vision. In rare cases, the brain aneurysm ruptures, releasing blood into the skull and leading to a stroke.
Aneurysms may be caused due to high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, trauma, heredity, and abnormal blood flow at the junction where arteries come together.
A brain aneurysm may be diagnosed by doing a CT Scan or cerebral angiogram.
In most cases aneurysms are observed without any surgical intervention. However if the doctor sees significant risk of rupture the aneurysm bay be treated by embolisation or surgical clipping. Embolisation involves inserting a small tube into the affected artery and placing it near the aneurysm. Soft metal coil or a mesh is then moved into the tube reducing the risk of rupture of the artery. Clipping involves placing a small metal clip around the base of the aneurysm decreasing the pressure and hence reducing the risk of rupture. Both these procedure should be done in a large hospital where many procedures like these are done.